Oktava MK-012 Capsule Review

Thursday, July 17th, 2008 | by

[Editor’s note: I am psyched to introduce RecordingHacks’ new guest author, Michael Joly! You know his mods, his knowledgeable and calming presence in the audio forums, and his new line of “Michael Joly Editions” microphones. He has been a friend to this project since the beginning, and will be periodically sharing his unique perspective and expertise in this space. Wecome, Michael!]

MK-012As a retailer and modifier of Oktava microphones, I’ve studied hundreds of frequency response graphs for Oktava’s small and large diaphragm capsules. This comparative analysis, coupled with listening tests, have provided some general impressions of each capsule type available for the MK-012 bodies.

MK-012 Cardioid Capsule

MK-012 Cardioid

The cardioid capsule is the most commonly used capsule for the MK-012 body. Unlike many modern small diameter condenser microphones with very bright top end response, the ‘012 cardioid features an essentially flat (±2dB) response from 100Hz to 15 kHz. For this reason, the spectral response of the MK-012 cardioid is likened more often to the venerable Neumann KM-84 than to its brighter successor, the KM-184.

The MK-012 cardioid capsule offers a smooth frequency response out to 90° off-axis, accompanied by approximately 16dB of attenuation at that source incidence angle. Its 180° response offers up to 50dB of attenuation in the 500-1000Hz band, cancellation of 20dB in the bass, and of 40dB in the treble range.

Overall, the MK-012 cardioid can be considered a small diaphragm capsule with flat on-axis response, slightly bright 90° response and warm / scooped 180° ambient response.

Applications: The MK-012 with cardioid capsule is a world-wide favorite mic for acoustic guitar and drum overhead use. Detail, clarity and depth without edginess or excessive high frequency boost.

MK-012 Hypercardioid Capsule

MK-012 Hypercardioid

With substantial 90° off-axis attenuation, flat midrange and slightly attenuated bass and treble, this capsule is a favorite with film and video sound recordists world wide. The ‘012 hypercardioid is essentially flat (±2dB) from 200Hz to 8 kHz, with a gentle 3dB/octave roll-off beyond these points.

90° attenuation is typically 26dB through most of the frequency range, but decreases to approximately 10db in the top octave. The 180° response, by way of contrast, offers about 30dB of attenuation through most of the frequency range but then increases to nearly 50dB in the top octave.

Overall, the MK-012 hypercardioid capsule offers flat on-axis sound with slightly attenuated top and bottom. Its 90° sound is bright, while its 180° sound is warm.

Applications: In addition to its ubiquitous use as a film and video dialog mic, the MK-012 with hypercardioid capsule is a welcome addition to a music recording studio’s locker as well. A pair of these mics would make an excellent choice for drum OH applications where the recordist wants to focus on the kit, minimize room sound and soften the cymbals a touch. The hypercardioid capsule comes in handy during sessions with singing acoustic guitarists, because additional separation between the talent’s voice and guitar can be achieved.

MK-012 Omni Capsule

MK-012 Omni

The ‘012 omni offers a slightly brighter on-axis sound than the ‘012 cardioid or hypercardioid capsules. This capsule is essentially flat (±2dB) from 30Hz to 5 kHz, then offers a slight presence peak of 4dB in the top octaves.

Off-axis frequency response mirrors the on-axis sound up to approximately 5 kHz, where both 90° and 180° response curves attenuate at 12dB / octave. Consequently, the ‘012 omni capsule offers slightly brighter than flat on-axis sound with somewhat attenuated HF as the source incidence angle moves to 90° or beyond.

And of course, the omni ‘012 is free from proximity effect, and thus allows very close-to-source placement without bass boom.

Applications: Prized for its natural sound, the MK-012 with omnidirectional capsule is often used for spaced-omni recording of classical or jazz ensembles. And though it might seem counter-intuitive, the ‘012 omni can frequently be used in live sound reinforcement applications on acoustic guitar. Without proximity effect, the mic can be placed extremely close to the guitar (or other soloist instrument) to achieve very high gain-before-feedback.

MK-101 Capsule


The MK-101 large diaphragm capsule was introduced in 2004 as a transition from the earlier MK-219 and MK-319 models. The ‘101 shares the same 26mm (active diaphragm area) capsule as the MK-219 & MK-319, much loved for its classic midrange presence and sibilance-free top end. When coupled to the transformerless ‘012 body, the MK-101 capsule offers slightly less body but a bit more clarity than its 219/319 predecessors.

The MK-101 headbasket features a large open area “forehead” for smooth off-axis response in the vertical as well as horizontal planes. Vertical asymmetry of the headbasket allows the recordist to explore different polar responses when using the mic upright or inverted. The small headbasket and body size make for easy placement and minimal reflection between sound source and microphone body.

On-axis: The MK-101 offers a powerful midrange presence and natural top end response with excellent rejection of sibilance.

Off-axis: The MK-101 has moderate attenuation at 90°, giving the mic a wide cardioid pick-up pattern. Its 180° response has a warm spectral balance with strongest output below 200Hz and smooth amplitude reduction to 3 kHz. A moderate high frequency peak lends the overall 180° sound a somewhat warm/scooped spectral balance.

Applications: Like the MK-219 and MK-319 (which use the same capsule), the MK-101 makes a great male or female vocal mic where the recordist needs minimum sibilance but a clear midrange presence. In fact, the ‘101 head driving the transformerless ‘012 body actually reveals some undiscovered “air” this capsule is capable of hearing. I’ve received a number of reports of clients using this mic for drum OH too — large diaphragm “size,” but with the transient response and clarity of the transformerless circuit.

MK-102 Capsule


Introduced in 2005, the MK-102 large diaphragm capsule features a small physical profile and flat, extended frequency response — qualities not typically found together in large diaphragm mics. The ‘102 features a 5 micron, 27.5 mm (active diameter) diaphragm and all-brass backplate construction, precision-drilled pattern control holes for classic LDC microphone presence on vocals or instruments.

A close-fitting housing surrounds the capsule and allows the front diaphragm to function with minimal headbasket coloration. In addition, the MK-102’s unique capsule and body orientation reduces reflections between the microphone and the sound source. The MK-102 body disappears completely behind the capsule head when the mic is aimed at the sound source. This leaves only the capsule diaphragm exposed to the sound source for minimal reflections and clear-sounding recordings.

On-axis: The MK-102 offers a smooth midrange and a top end tailored with “presence” and “air” peaks but free from the harsh, excessively bright sound found in many modern LDC microphones.

Off-axis: Frequency response from 90° through 180° closely resembles the on-axis sound and the attenuation of sound over this angular range is exceptionally smooth.

Applications: A lovely female vocal mic with airy qualities perfect for a lighter pop vocal session. A clean and bright top end lends this mic small diaphragm-like qualities for stringed instrument use as well.

MK-103 Capsule


Released in October 2006, the MK-103 is a mid-sized (19.5mm active area) diaphragm capsule developed to complement Oktava small- and large diaphragm condenser mics. It provides a useful gradation in time domain response between the small and large diagram sizes, very flat frequency response, and excellent cardioid pattern attenuation over a broad frequency range. The ‘103 provides most of the quick transient response reminiscent of the acclaimed MK-012 small diaphragm mic, but retains some of the magic associated with Oktava’s large diaphragm capsules.

The MK-103 capsule features a tight-fitting headbasket that surrounds the capsule closely to eliminate sources of sound reflections typically found in LDC microphone headbaskets. In fact, the headbasket of the ‘103 has been acoustically designed as an optimally-curved housing to eliminate sharp edge refractions that impart coloration to off-axis sound.

On-axis: Quick transient response and extended high frequency response are hallmarks of the MK-103 capsule.

Off-axis: Moderately strong attenuation at 90° creates a tightly focused cardioid pattern, while very strong midrange attenuation at 180° minimizes room sound and unwanted sound source pick-up.

Applications: The very flat frequency response mid-sized diaphragm mic provides the natural timbre response sought after in small diaphragm mics, but with excellent off-axis rejection and a bit more of the “heft” associated with LDC mics. An Australian client wrote to tell me he’s getting the best OH drum sounds of his career with a pair of ‘103s.

MK-104 Capsule


Released in November, 2006 the MK-104 features a completely new 27mm large diaphragm capsule, showcasing a new arrangement and sizing of precision-drilled backplate holes designed to create a “lean and bright” sound without being screechy, sizzly or scooped.

The groundbreaking MK-104 headbasket design features four acoustically-optimized vents that dramatically reduce reflections, smoothing the upper midrange response and improving transient response detail. The MK-104 is capable of rendering high frequency transient sounds with accuracy and detail reminiscent of a small diaphragm mic — but offers the flattering qualities of a large diaphragm condenser.

On-axis: The MK-104 exhibits a smooth and gentle upward tilt from bass to treble that provides several dB more treble output relative to the bass end.

Off-axis: The MK-104 has a unique and useful polar response — at 90° if offers strong rejection of high frequency sound, but at 180° offers a bright spectral response.

The MK-104 capsule excels where the recordist wants an accurate on-axis large diaphragm cardioid sound, excellent transient response and bright room ambience while minimizing HF leakage from adjacent instruments.

Applications: A lean bottom end and rising mid-to-high end response makes this mic a suitable choice when the recordist wants to attenuate bass and accentuate top end. I have one male vocalist client with a very light, falsetto-like voice; he loves the way the ‘104 can be worked very close to reveal intimate detail without adding a lot of bass that would make his voice sound unnatural. This capsule would also be a great choice for drum OH where a sizzly top end and minimum amount of kick drum is desired.

R12 Capsule

RED R12 Large diaphragm capsule

No longer in production but available in the used marketplace, the RED R12 large diaphragm capsule provides a “midrange scooped” sound in contrast to the classic “midrange forward” Oktava voicing. A fairly high amplitude and broad proximity effect give this mic a huge bottom end sound when used close. A welcome change from many low cost Chinese-capsule equipped microphones, the R12’s high frequency response is fairly smooth and free from stridency.

Applications: A good choice for backing vocal tracks. The slightly scooped response causes backing vocals to recede a bit and stay out of the way of the lead vocal.

M-1 Capsule

RTT M1 and M3 capsule

Impeccable industrial design and machining make the RTT M1 and M3 a joy to see, hold and use. Often specified as a “33mm capsule,” this dimension refers to the outer diameter of the brass backplate. The active diaphragm area measures approximately 28mm. The M1 and M3 capsules are both somewhat lean in the bass (though proximity effect is very usable with a natural-sound boost) with a crisp and clean top end free from sibilance.

Applications: These have a presence almost like a U87 but without the “honk” and are somewhat lean in the bottom. Rob Schnapf (Beck, Eliot Smith), an OktavaMod client, is getting great piano sounds with them.

[Editor’s note — needless to say, Michael has already opened up most of these capsules and performed classic OktavaMod upgrades to them. If you’re looking for something a little extra-special for your MK-012 body, I suspect Michael might entertain inquiries…]

Tags: , , , ,
Posted in Microphones, Reviews | 8 Comments »

8 Responses to “Oktava MK-012 Capsule Review”

  1. Leo

    November 5th, 2008 at 10:43 am


    Thanks for a great review of the Oktava capsules, I do documentaries, nature social etc and record soundscapes.
    I use Mk012’s, some Audio Technicas and Rodes, wonder if one of the large capsules could improve my nature / environment recordings..?

    Let me know your thoughts,


    Leo Salazar

  2. michael joly

    November 7th, 2008 at 8:04 am


    All things being equal, a large diaphragm mic is going to have a lower noise floor than a small diaphrgm mic. So if noise has been a problem in your recordings you might want to try a LDC.

    On the other hand, a small diaphragm mic is going to have faster transient response and probably greater detail than an LDC mic. So if your work requires those recording attributes you would be better off staying with small diaphragm mics.

  3. Tim

    September 30th, 2009 at 12:10 pm

    Hey Michael. Yeah, thanks for all the helpful information. I saw that you listed the Red R12 capsule as working with the MK-012 bodies, and I’m wondering if the other Red capsules (the ones I know are the R0 thru R8 available from also work with the MK-012 body. Do you only have to worry about if the screw threading matches and if the voltages match, or is there more to it than that?

    And for that matter, do the Blue capsules (for the Bottle and Bottle Rocket mics) work on the MK-012 too?

    Thanks for the help.

  4. matthew mcglynn

    September 30th, 2009 at 12:27 pm

    Tim, the other Red and Blue capsules (B0-B8 and R0-R7) definitely do *not* work on the MK-012 body. Red’s R12 was specifically designed for the MK-012, but didn’t sell well enough to stay in production.

    Red’s R0 is identical to Blue’s B0, and that’s true all the way up to R7/B7. There was no R8, but there is a B8, which is a newer design with neutral voicing. The 0-7 designs were all intended to evoke vintage sounds; e.g. the B6 is an AKG C12 reference, and the B7 is a Neumann U47 reference.

    See the MK-012 profile for a list of capsules that DO work with that mic. The Lomo capsules (aka RTT) seem to get good reviews.

    All the mic profiles on this site list all compatible capsules, barring oversights or mistakes. For example, see the Bottle Rocket Stage One profile.

    There are a lot of bayonet-mount capsules on the market. The Stage One, or Violet’s Global Pre, are great low-cost platforms for interchangeable capsules from Blue (Red), Neumann, Violet, and Flea.

  5. Daniele

    January 19th, 2010 at 12:06 pm

    Hi, I m going to use the Oktava for my short movies with my canon 5d mark 2.
    I will record the audio separately with the zoom h4n.
    I was wondering: I
    Is the Oktava a good microphone for outdoor as well?
    I learned that for indoor records with actors talking is perfect with the hyper capsule, but what about outdoor? Is maybe better purchase a shotgun like the rode ntg-2 for outdoor scenes?

  6. William David

    June 11th, 2010 at 7:44 am

    Michael, I have used the MK-319 for years as my go-to mic for vocals (it’s much better than any of my “pro-studio required” U87’s). I’ve been looking for the best OH’s I can find for drums and tried the MK-012 with the Cardioid. HOLY TOLEDO! As usual, Oktava has not failed me! As an engineer for over 25 years, I had used a pair some years ago and had simply forgotten how good these sound. I use them with the “Recorderman” OH technique. I consider these a “secret weapon” and get complimented by the major labels on my drum sounds ever since I went to them.

  7. Brian A Van Tassel

    June 20th, 2021 at 2:12 pm

    Thanks for all of the great insight and reviews.
    I first heard of the Oktavas through Michael Joly’s OktavaMod work.
    I have a pair of Michael’s MJE V250s and some Hulk 990s, from his MXL Mods . . . They are Fantastic !

    His Oktava MK012 Mods are always Raved about . . . Some say that it was almost like “cheating” , because the Oktavas are already So Good !
    . . . I really wanted a pair of Mod MK012s from Michael . . . But with all of these glowing reviews, I am Excited to get to work with my new standard matched pair of Oktava MK012s . . . !

    I record plenty of Acoustic African Drums, Drumset, Balaphone (Original Marimba), ect.

    I have been using Joly’s Hulk 990s and V250s with great results . . . for pencil mics, my pair of AT Pro 37s are really nice with the V250s, yet I have wanted a touch more openness and detail for the ride cymbals and the higher frequencies of the Djembe drums . . . I can’t wait to get to work with my new MK012s . . . I will share my findings, very soon.

  8. TJ

    September 21st, 2022 at 9:57 am

    Michael Joly’s readings of the polar pattern is completely off. “30dB of attenuation through most of the frequency range but then increases to nearly 50dB in the top octave.” This is simply not in line with the polar pattern diagrams officially published by Oktava. Neither does the manufacturer claim this. This Michael Joly guy is fairly discredited in my eyes.

Leave a comment