How to build a microphone

Originally found at

For decades condenser microphones have been the staple for high-quality recording and live sound assignments. Unfortunately, not everyone can afford to own a good one. Well that’s about to change. I’ve written this article so that anyone who wants a great condenser mic (or those who just want more of them) can have their wish.

For around $20 (US) anyone can build an extremely accurate, life-like condenser microphone. DO NOT let the cost fool you, this mic’s frighteningly good performance will blow your mind — and it’s easy to build! -Joel Cameron

This microphone is largely based on a posting I found on the internet showing how to modify Realistic (Radio Shack) PZMs for better performance. I have simply finished the design so people can build a complete mic from scratch. After making a pair of these, I was shocked to find out how amazing they sound. In fact, these little buggers have become my first choice for capturing unhyped, totally natural stereo images, beating-out pairs of choice small and large-diaphragm condensers, and some nice ribbons too!

There are several good points worth a quick mention regarding this microphone:

Firstly, it uses an extremely simple circuit with very few components. As such there’s not much stuff in it to screw up the sound. In audio design simple is generally better, and this is the epitome of simplicity.

Secondly, because it is such a simple circuit, it is very easy to build, even if you have no previous electronics building experience. With moderate care and attention anyone can easily build a pair of these mics in an afternoon.

Thirdly, this mic uses a proprietary, portable power supply instead of phantom power. This makes it a great choice for location recording, binaural nature recordings, or anyone forced to rely on dynamic mics because their gear lacks phantom power capability.

Lastly, because this mic uses a tiny 6-mm diaphragm, it has incredibly fast impulse response, which essentially means that its sound reproduction is extremely accurate and life-like. This factor has contributed to the recent popularity of ultra-small-diaphragm condensers. Larger diaphragms (even those used in traditional, high-quality small-diaphragm pencil mics) simply cannot reproduce this kind of accuracy. Recording with a pair these mics sounds just like being there!

Enough rambling — let’s get started.

(Note: The bottom of each cartridge is marked with a white positioning dot used to determine Terminal 1 from Terminal 2. With this dot in the 12 o’clock position Terminal 2 is left while Terminal 1 is right.)

Circuit components:

  • (1) Panasonic WM-60AY [Ed. note: the original TapeOp article incorrectly specified the model as WM-66AY] Omnidirectional Microphone Cartridge (available from Digi-Key at 800-344-4539, part # P9959-ND). This capsule is a high-quality back-electret type with a frequency response that is ruler flat from 20Hz to 20kHz. It contains an internal FET impedance converter, making an external FET unnecessary.
  • (1) 1000 pF ceramic disc capacitor
  • (1) 10uF mylar or metalized polypropylene capacitor (DO NOT substitute an electrolytic!)
  • (1) 2.2Kohm 1% metal-film resistor
  • (1) 9-volt battery terminal w/leads
  • (1) 9-volt alkaline battery
  • Insulated copper wire


  • (1) Metal enclosure for the power supply (important for proper grounding)
  • (1) 9-volt battery mount (clip types can be purchased at Radio Shack or you can use industrial velcro, etc…)
  • (1) Panel-mount male XLR connector
    (1) Panel-mount female XLR connector
  • (1) Male XLR cable connector (for the mic output to PSU)
  • (4) Rubber feet (not necessary, but I like them for the bottom of the PSU!)

This project consists of two main parts: Fig. 1 – the microphone, and Fig. 2 – the power supply. Fig. 2a is power supply used when driving a balanced input. This is the one most people will want to build. When using it to drive an 1/8'' unbalanced mic input (such as those on many cassette and mini-disc multitracks), simply use an XLR female to 1/8'' male adapter cable connecting pin 2 to tip and pins 1 and 3 to sleeve. If you are certain that you will never want to drive a balanced input, you can opt for the supply shown in Fig. 2b designed for use with unbalanced inputs only.

Fig. 1

Fig. 2a – Power Supply for Balanced XLR Input

You may notice that there is no “power” switch on the power supply diagrams. This is because the battery will only drain when the mic is plugged in. Each time you finish using the mic, simply unplug it from the supply. There is no need to remove the battery.

Fig. 2b – Power Supply for Unbalanced 1/4″ Input


Construction tips:

  • When building the circuit make sure to shrinkwrap all bare leads to prevent the possibility of shorting against the chassis or other leads. If shorting occurs, your mic won’t work. Shrinkwrap is available from any electronic supply store.
  • After you connect the wire leads to the mic cartridge seal the entire back of the cartridge with non-conductive epoxy making sure to overlap a touch where the back meets the sides. This seal provide additional dampening of the phenolic backplate of the capsule which further extends its low frequency response.
  • You can mount the cartridge just about any way you want. I chose to mount mine in the end of the rubber boot of a Neutrik XLR connector (see photos). This allows for a compact package, reasonable sonic neutrality, and perhaps even a touch of shock-mounting because of the rubber’s ability to dampen vibration. If you choose to mount your cartridge the same way, sink it by pressing gently on the edges of the cartridge. Do not mash down dead center or you risk damage to the diaphragm. Note that mounting the cartridge this way will also require that you handle the finished mic with care so as not to damage the exposed capsule.
  • Buy or borrow a simple multi-meter for use during construction. Mine is an inexpensive Radio Shack model 22-802 which costs about $25. Use this to check all solder points as you go just to make sure that they are good (sometimes a connection may look good, but, for some reason, won’t be making solid electrical contact). By checking as you go you can identify a problem when it occurs rather than having to go through the entire, completed circuit to find a single cold joint (which can easily become a hair-pulling experience!).
  • For my power supply chassis I used a single-wide electrical junction box which cost me 79-cents at Home Depot. The solid cover for it (to complete the enclosure) cost another 35-cents complete with screws! This is an excellent choice because it’s cheap, it’s metal, it’s sturdy, and the punch-outs are already the right size for most XLR panel mount connectors. I used Neutrik XLRs which required that I file four grooves around the edge of the hole for the right fit, but the hole was already there!
  • Work slowly! This is not a complicated project, so it won’t take long. Check and recheck your progress. I know it’s easy to get impatient and want to have it done, but work methodically. When you are finished the mic will give you years of excellent performance!

Using your new mic(s):

Despite the fact that these mics are omnidirectional they do possess directional characteristics at higher frequencies. Therefore using a pair in an X-Y configuration can yield an incredibly natural stereo image. This also allows you to back-off the top-end a touch (acoustically!) by simply pointing the tip of mic 90-degrees from the source. The impulse response and realism remain unaffected!

These mics are awesome for stereo recording. Try them as drum overheads and room mics. Jecklin-disc and spaced-omni stereo techniques also work fabulously. They are great for acoustic guitar, piano, percussion, choral groups, or just about anything that you want to sound like “being there”.

If you have never used omnidirectional mics before, be aware that they hear much more of the room in which the source is recorded than cardioid mics do. Therefore, if you want a “dead” sound, you will need to either record in a “dead” room or use baffles and/or strategic placement to reduce ambiance. I was able to effectively control the ambiance in a vocal track by placing the mic below the singer’s head in a carpeted room, pointing up at him while he sang down at the mic. Since his voice projected primarily into the carpet, much of it was absorbed leaving very little to reverberate in the room.

Also, omnidirectional mics do not exhibit the proximity effect (low-end boost when used up close) that directional mics do, so you can place these mics extremely close to a source without the unnatural boominess that can result from using a cardioid. This also means that when you want that low-end effect (for say, a lead vocal) then you will need to dial in a touch of low-frequency equalization.

Because these mics sound so natural, they are great for capturing just about any good-sounding source. Use them on guitar cabinets, acoustic instruments, brass sections, ensembles, inside kick drums, you name it. Experiment and have fun!

A word of caution: NEVER connect these mics to a phantom powered input without first turning off the phantom and allowing 5-10 minutes for discharge. Though it is designed to drive a balanced input, the mic’s output is not a true balanced design, so the DC-voltage provided by phantom power on pins 2 and 3 will not cancel as it would with a balanced mic. This could easily damage the cartridge, which is rated for a maximum of only 10-volts DC!

Many thanks to Phil Rastoczny for writing the article on the Realistic PZM modification that is the basis for this microphone.

DIY enthusiasts who wish to build a studio quality large-diaphragm condenser microphone from an all-inclusive kit, see our friends at

13 Responses to “How to build a microphone”

  1. Michael

    July 30th, 2012 at 10:23 pm

    Can i implement this design to power an Apex165 mini condenser from a wireless transmitter originally designed for a dynamic lavalier mic?
    I could power the mic with the battery from the 9v battery in the wireless pak.
    Not sure about all the values of the caps like voltage rating and stuff like that.
    Digi key doesn’t seen to have ceramic disc caps either, unless I’m not looking in the right spot.
    Any help would be appreciated

    Kelowna, Britsh Columbia

  2. Steve

    November 8th, 2012 at 11:52 pm

    I use phantom power all the time with all my condensers and I prefer not dealing with batteries if I can help it. What if any modifications do I need to do to just avoid the external battery pack?

  3. Geoff

    January 5th, 2015 at 7:39 am

    Thank you for posting this.

    With Fig 2a and 2b, it seems to me the positive + and negative – on the battery are the wrong way around? I think positive on battery should go to pin 2 on XLR female (from mic), and negative on battery should go to pin 3 on XLR female (from mic)? Or am I wrong? Very interested to know since I want to build some of these.

    One other thing. Also not sure but I think the panasonic mic cartridge does not output balanced – so to get really balanced output of this device would require a transformer? Happy for you to correct me if I am wrong on these points.


  4. munendra singh

    January 7th, 2015 at 3:11 am

    very nice.I have done and succeeed

  5. Wesley

    January 27th, 2015 at 11:23 am

    Seems the WM-60AY’s have been discontinued. Any substitutes I could use with similar qualities?

  6. Noah Taylor

    May 25th, 2015 at 9:39 pm

    Here’s Panasonic’s newer equivalent with lower self noise:

  7. Tony Sandoval

    April 3rd, 2016 at 10:23 pm

    Can these schematics be made bypassing the 9v battery? I’d like to use my phantom power on my AI.

  8. Rebecca H

    May 19th, 2016 at 9:16 am

    Does the capacitor have to be 9V or does it not really matter as long as it’s 1000pF?

  9. Coles

    October 18th, 2016 at 2:06 pm

    @Rebecca, No, with capacitors just aim to have the voltage 2-3 times larger than the battery. In this case probably the best you could manage would be 50V or 100V which should be fine.

    I have ordered 1000pF 50V ceramic disc capacitors and 10uF 100V metalised polypropylene and I expect they’ll work fine.

  10. Galen Clark

    November 30th, 2016 at 7:28 am

    I just built these and will be running tests pretty soon, does anyone happen to have any sound samples they have recorded with these? I will be recording a big band next week and can share samples of the microphones.

    I was also curious about the output of the capsules being unbalanced. If you were to implement some kind of transformer to the existing circuit, what would be appropriate? The phantom power modification would also be preferable as 9v batteries can be expensive after you burn through a couple. If anyone has those schematic modifications it would be greatly appreciated!

  11. Ben

    March 9th, 2017 at 7:58 am

    I’m looking into building this microphone, but I have absolutely no experience with circuits. How do you connect the microphone part (Fig. 1) and the power supply?

  12. Goatboy

    April 8th, 2017 at 11:13 am

    I too am looking to to use phantom power instead of batteries and would appreciate any clues as to modifying the circuit! Brilliant project by the way!!

  13. Andre

    January 26th, 2019 at 5:08 pm

    Hi – I am finishing up my first attempt at this mic. Everything’s together except the capsule as I wait for the WM 61As from China.
    I went ahead and altered the design to include a volume Pot. Based on my limited understanding, it seemed the way to go was with a 10K Ohm Pot. Is that right, or am I backwards in my thinking and actually need a 100K Ohm Pot?


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